Tourism, as one of the world’s fastest-growing industries, has propelled economic growth but has also birthed the term “overtourism.” This phenomenon, characterized by an overwhelming influx of tourists, has led to dissatisfaction and adverse impacts on the economic, socio-cultural, and environmental aspects of major tourist destinations.
The rapid surge in visitor numbers has strained public transportation, infrastructure, and facilities originally designed for residents. The rise of online accommodations and tourism services has further disrupted daily life. The economic benefits destinations gain from tourism often come at the cost of residents and their well-being. As Butler aptly describes, these destinations suffer from their own success, becoming victims of their allure.
European tourist destinations, including Amsterdam, Barcelona, Reykjavik, and Venice, have experienced social unrest and protests. The term “tourismphobia” emerged, reflecting locals’ anti-tourist sentiments due to pressures like loss of purchasing power, rent inflation, and a sense of alienation. Overtourism, however, differs from tourismphobia, as it encompasses various factors contributing to the disruptions caused by excessive tourism.
While the term “overtourism” gained popularity recently, the problem itself has roots in literature dating back to the 1960s. Dredge suggests that overtourism is akin to “old wine in new bottles,” drawing parallels with earlier concerns about resource overconsumption and overuse in tourism.
Definitions of overtourism vary among scholars, ranging from exceeding carrying capacity to social and ecological impacts. Overtourism is not synonymous with overcrowding or mass tourism; it requires surpassing a destination’s carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity, a recently emphasized aspect, considers the impact of tourism on residents’ perceptions and is intertwined with the birth of the overtourism phenomenon.
Sustainable tourism is another lens through which overtourism is viewed, emphasizing the importance of responsible tourism development. However, some argue that the concept’s validity is questionable, and it is more of a theoretical marketing ploy.
Overtourism’s global nature is evident, but a local and authentic outlook remains crucial. Seasonality, urbanization, and economic perspectives also contribute to the complexity of overtourism, making it a multifaceted issue that demands attention and sustainable solutions.
In conclusion, overtourism presents a multifaceted challenge requiring careful consideration of economic, social, and environmental factors. Balancing the benefits of tourism with the well-being of residents and the preservation of local culture is essential to creating a sustainable and enjoyable travel experience for all.
For a more in-depth analysis and a comprehensive exploration of overtourism, you can refer to my original thesis where I delve into the subject matter in greater detail.